dCS Rossini Apex D/A processor

The text, from Gary Bruestle, a speaker-positioning wizard at Definitive Audio in Seattle, left my mouth watering: "Have you heard the Apex version of a Rossini or Vivaldi yet? It's stunningly good. Addictive, even. ... I usually have a hard time relaxing and listening to music in the showroom, but the Rossini Apex DAC had me in its thrall for a few hours yesterday."

Soon thereafter, I heard from Peter McGrath, Wilson Audio's director of sales, that he was blown away by the sound of his dCS Vivaldi Apex DAC—the flagship DAC from Data Conversion Systems (dCS) of Cambridge, England. Nor was dCS exactly shy when it proclaimed, in its March 3, 2022, press release, that the Apex version of its Ring DAC was "taking the Ring DAC's world-leading performance to a new level."

When Gary told me, during the phone chat that followed his text, that he believed the Apex DAC raised the Rossini's bass response to that of the Vivaldi, I sat up in my seat. For the year the top-of-the-line Vivaldi DAC sang in my system, I reveled in its expansive soundstage, bigger, weightier, more lifelike images, and superior presentation of texture, overtones, and bass. It got me as close to the live-performance experience as I could get with medium-size floorstanders in a medium-size listening room. Might the Rossini Apex be capable of transporting me as close or closer?

My chance to find out came just a few months later, when a Rossini Apex DAC arrived for review. But before I began my audition, I sought to clarify what was going on inside the DAC's chassis.

The Ring DAC foundation
In a YouTube video titled dCS—The New Ring DAC Apex (footnote 1), Chris Hales, dCS's director of product development, says, "With the Ring DAC, we're sitting somewhere in the sweet spot between absolute [voltage] precision and timing accuracy." The choice of filter—the Ring DAC includes six for PCM, four for DSD, and one for MQA—determines where you sit in that delicate balance. In a follow-up email, Hales noted, "Whilst the filter choice can affect the listening experience, it doesn't affect the operation of the Ring DAC itself, which remains extremely linear whichever filter is selected."

dCS's technical director, Andy McHarg, whose vision drove the Apex project, said that developing the new Apex Ring DAC hardware necessitated examining each component of the technology to see what could be improved. "Marginal gains mount up over time," he says in that video (footnote 2).


The Apex edition of dCS's Rossini and Vivaldi systems is based on a reconfigured Ring DAC circuit board with an all-new analog output stage. The challenge dCS faced as it developed the Ring DAC Apex, Hales said, was the inability of conventional test equipment to measure the Apex's performance values with sufficient accuracy. In an email, dCS VP of Sales and Marketing John Giolas wrote, "the linearity of our DACs is so [much higher than] the industry norm, we've had to create our own test equipment to measure it. Conventional test equipment is wholly inadequate to measure what our DACs are capable of.

"Audio measurement systems [can] introduce noise, or distortion, or limit the frequency response, just like the thing they're trying to measure, and there can come a point where, even if they're not dominating what you're measuring, these artefacts are affecting it one way or another."

Hales explained, "A good example is when measuring harmonics, where the second harmonic inherent in the test equipment can cancel the one in the item you're trying to measure. This can result in a measurement that is much lower than [what] it should be, one which tends to behave unexpectedly as the performance of the item under test is adjusted" (footnote 3).

Giolas corrected a few misconceptions about the proprietary Ring DAC technology found inside all dCS products. dCS began to develop the Ring DAC more than three decades ago and was the first company to offer a digital-to-analog conversion system that could process audio signals at 24-bit resolution.

"It's not entirely intuitive to many audiophiles that the Ring DAC is an analogue device," Giolas wrote. "In all dCS DACs, the Ring DAC architecture is discrete and analogue. It consists of a resistor array, a voltage regulation bus, and a buffer/output gain stage that connects to the preamplifier or power amplifier (among several other things)" (footnote 4).


Hales elaborated in an email, "On the surface, the Ring DAC may look like a Ladder DAC. There is a latch and a resistor for each current source, and these current sources are fed to a summing bus. The key difference between the Ring DAC and Ladder DACs ... is that the Ring DAC uses current sources of equal value. This is what is known as a 'unitary-weighted' or 'thermometer coded' DAC architecture.

"Additionally, the Ring DAC does not use the same current source(s) for the same bit every time." (The emphasis is Hales's.) There are 48 current sources within the Ring DAC, all of which produce an equal amount of current. The Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)–controlled nature of the Ring DAC allows the sources to be turned on and off in such a way that any component value errors are averaged out over time. Firing the same bit three times on the Ring DAC might give one output slightly high, the next slightly low, the next somewhere in the middle, as opposed to outputting the sample slightly high every time or slightly low every time (as seen in a Ladder DAC, for example).


"It takes a considerable amount of signal-processing power and know how to optimally operate a thermometer-coded DAC, but the benefit with this approach is that it almost entirely removes the linear distortion from the signal. (Bear in mind that the highly artificial distortion many DACs produce is very noticeable to humans and has a negative impact on perceived sound quality.)

"The Ring DAC process may be thought of as decorrelating errors. Background noise (an uncorrelated error, one which is not linked to the audio signal itself) is very prevalent in nature, whereas artificial distortion (a correlated error) is not. This results in the Ring DAC having class-leading distortion performance, particularly at lower signal levels. This means that more fine musical detail can be resolved and heard."

Giolas took it from there: "The dCS Digital Platform (DDP) instructs the Ring DAC which resistor 'latches' to turn off and on via a dCS-designed software system we call the 'mapper'. Its sophisticated quasi-randomization accomplishes this in such a way that any component value errors are averaged out, vastly improving linearity over ladder DACs and other conventional DACs." dCS had previously addressed and improved its mapper technology in 2017, when the Rossini 2.0 upgrade provided a choice of new or legacy mapping algorithms. David Steven, managing director of dCS, noted by email, "The mapping process is vital to the performance of the DAC and is performed in programmable logic (FPGA). As we improve it, we can upgrade the performance of units in the field (eg, most recently with Bartók 2.0). The Apex hardware changes take full advantage of and build upon the high-speed mappers that were installed during the 2.0 software update to the Ring DAC."

"The new Ring DAC Apex hardware features several modifications," Giolas continued. "The reference supply that feeds the Ring DAC circuit board was one of the first areas that dCS engineers looked at during the research and development phase. Their investigation led them to make some significant adjustments and enhancements. The engineers also thoroughly modified and improved all subsequent stages of the Ring DAC, including the summing and filter stages. The Ring DAC output stage responsible for buffering the analogue signals generated by the Ring DAC was redesigned (footnote 5). Other changes to the Ring DAC's hardware included replacing individual transistors on the Ring DAC circuit board with a compound pair, thereby improving symmetry and linearity, and adjusting the layout of components on the Ring DAC circuit board. The result of these various adaptations is a new, enhanced analogue board that is quieter than previous iterations and over 12dB more linear in the second harmonic."


I placed the Rossini Apex DAC on a shelf under my reference Rossini DAC, both DACs resting on Wilson Audio Pedestals. A Stromtank S 1000 battery power source supplied power via Nordost Odin 2 cables. A Rossini Grade 1 master clock ($10,200), which I consider essential for optimal playback, paced both DACs. Settings on both units were identical: mappers (Map 1), filters (F5 for Red Book, F3 for 24/88.2 up to 24/192, F6 for higher PCM resolutions, F1DSD for DSD, and M1 for MQA), voltage output (2V, footnote 6), and upsampling format (DXD). I soon discovered that my preference for the Map 1 mapper remains unchanged with the Rossini Apex DAC; I find it richest in color saturation and contrast.

Footnote 1: See youtu.be/tZEKEYniLTo. John Giolas and Rachael Steven conducted the interviews and collaborated on the story and editing.

Footnote 2: A similar sentiment was expressed by Nuno Vitorino, director of research and development at Innuos, who wrote in an email to me and Editor Jim Austin, "It's the sum of a very large number of small improvements on the source that end up providing a very audible benefit."

Footnote 3: More detailed information about Apex technology can be found at dcsaudio.com/edit/apex-a-closer-look.

Footnote 4: For more on the dCS Ring DAC, see dcsaudio.com/assets/dCS-Ring-DAC-Explained.pdf.

Footnote 5: According to Hales, "The purpose of the output stage is primarily to interface us to what is unknown territory once we leave the dCS realm. We really don't have much control over what cables people are going to connect, what external equipment people are going to connect, and these can have very different input characteristics, so it's important to have an output stage which is capable of driving lots of current, that's not sensitive to stability problems that these may cause. ... The solution, then, is to isolate the summing stage from the outside world so that we can optimize the performance of the summing stage and drive the enormously uncertain loads that cable and amplifier combinations can present."

Footnote 6: Listening tests conducted years ago revealed that, to my ears, Rossini's 6V output delivers the most colorful and engaging sound. But since some preamps and integrated amplifiers that arrived for review couldn't handle 6V, I reluctantly switched to 2V. Then, while preparing the specs for this review, I noticed that specified residual noise levels are lowest at the 6V output. With this confirmation for my 6V preference, it's now back to 6V.

dCS (Data Conversion Systems), Ltd.
US distributor: Data Conversion Systems Americas, LLC
PNC Bank Bldg.
300 Delaware Ave., Suite 210, Wilmington, DE 19801
(302) 473-9050

georgehifi's picture

If someone showed that pcb to me
And said it was an R2R ladder dac, I'd believe them. Please enlighten me, is a RingDac dac, R2R based??? I never saw R2R dac chip or discrete in Arcam's DCS ring dac players when replacing laser.

Cheers George

Archimago's picture

Based on this (and also the article PDF):

The dcs RingDAC technology appears to be a multibit (5-bit) SDM system upsampled to rates like 2.8-6.1MHz depending on the model. There's a first step oversampling to 768kHz which is presumably also where the digital filtering options are applied.

With faster technology over time, these numbers can certainly increase with each generation. Not sure if necessarily needed or will imply better sound quality. Objective results look excellent already!

miguelito's picture


Long-time listener's picture

Given that DACs, such as the $700 Topping D90SE, routinely reach 21 bits of resolution (with one or two reviewed in Stereophile having 22), what is it about this particular DAC that justifies it being priced at more than ten times that amount?

windansea's picture

If it sounds better, even just a little, that might be worth the price to some.

I enjoyed this review, and I appreciated that Mr. Serinus did a comparison of DACs, but I just wish he'd go that extra step and make it double-blind. That would eliminate so much doubt and justified skepticism. It would really be an endorsement of the product and its technology. I would be more willing to BUY this product after a double-blind ABX.

georgehifi's picture

Would be real interesting to do a blind A/B with those two.
However I do with Redbook PCM CD replay believe in R2R dacs, they just sound more "fleshed out" to me.

Cheers George

Archimago's picture

Or even just a direct recording from the outputs in 24/96 using a hi-res ADC and listen to the difference. (I've done this over the years accompanying DAC measurements/reviews - do a search on "Archimago AMPT" if you haven't heard these.)

I would be very surprised to hear a big difference comparing the Topping D90SE/LE vs. this DAC in a volume-controlled set-up.

windansea's picture

There is not much excuse to avoid blind ABX when it comes to DACs. It's not so easy to do with speakers or amps or preamps or cables. But with DACs, it's the same source feeding two DACs, into a single pre. Someone else does the switching (ideally the switching is done randomly by a machine-- these exist) and then the listener aims to identify which DAC is delivering the music. I can't see how anyone could object to this, except for the manufacturer and/or reviewer who realizes that there's no detectable difference. Come on Stereophile, how about for DACs, let's use the scientific method!

PS: I forgot to add, for ABX, the two DACs would need to be level matched, so it's more complicated than I stated at first. The path to knowledge is NOT EASY.

ok's picture

the analog stage - which is the sole object of the apex update - is the most important part of a dac; thankfully dcs realized it at last.

miguelito's picture

I am told the upgrade involved three things:
1- Better current sources to the Ring DAC
2- Improved trace locations in the Ring DAC board
3- Improved analog output stage

miguelito's picture

Best I can say is just go for a listen. If you cannot tell the difference, then you can save a lot of money. I just upgraded my Rossini to Apex and can very much tell the difference. YMMV.

David Harper's picture

Or at least you imagine that you can. Placebo is a powerful thing.

ChrisS's picture

...skills, a highly resolving stereo system, a nice room, and great music!

The Tinkerer's picture

I ask because, if you do not, your comment immediately presents as breathtakingly pretentious. But if you do know him, I will gladly retract my observation.

miguelito's picture

Also, I do not respond to such comments, which are based on nothing else but prejudice.

rwwear's picture

For all of the expense DCS could have at least added an HDMI input for high resolution playback from Blu-ray and SACD players. It is a severely limited product. I suppose they couldn't afford the licensing fee.

miguelito's picture

You can buy a dCS transport, or do what I do and rip the SACDs to DSD files and play them directly - you can use Roon, Audirvana, or the internal player either with a connected hard drive or over UPnP. I have done all of the above.

If you really want to use something like a BluRay player to play both SACDs and BluRay discs (eg with an Oppo or similar), you can get one of those little $100 boxes on eBay that will produce a digital stream from the HDMI signal into a SPDIF signal - it works with BluRay hi res audio (PCM) and with SACDs (over DoP, which by the way dCS invented). I have one such box and works great (but I don't really use it).

I should add that playing from a consumer BluRay player is not really the market segment for this product.

rwwear's picture

Better yet would be for DCS to have HDMI like Bryston, T+A, McIntosh and a few other notable high end companies. There's many audio only Blu-Ray discs out there.

hb72's picture

how can I do that? tx in advance


John Atkinson's picture
hb72 wrote:
how can I do that?

See https://www.stereophile.com/content/music-round-93-minidsp-ripping-sacds-page-2.

John Atkinson
Technical Editor, Stereophile

miguelito's picture

About 7yrs ago I purchased an old Sony PS3 with a specific firmware that allowed me to run a piece of software to rip SACDs to ISO files, then convert those to DSD files. Recently my PS3 started flaking out so I seeked other means.

I looked into the Oppos I had heard about but as you might know the Oppos are not made anymore and the few that would do this ripping and are in good shape sell for inordinate amounts of money.

Turns out today you can use a large number of DVD players, most of which you can easily get on eBay for $20-$30, and by putting together a USB drive to initialize the DVD player and using some software on your computer, you can very easily rip SACDs directly into DSD files.

Follow this thread: https://www.psaudio.com/copper/article/down-the-rabbit-hole-of-sacd-ripping-and-dsd-extraction/

I use a Sony BDP-S5100, which I got basically brand new on eBay for about $30. Works amazingly well.

litle Ben's picture

I don't know why they are lying, nothing has changed compared to the original version, and the technology used is some old stocks of xilinx chips that are more than 10 years old, completely ridiculous, so I guess everyone understands what it means to be 10 or more years behind in digital technology