Hill Plasmatronics Type 1 loudspeaker

Dr. Alan Hill, president of Plasmatronics Inc., was previously employed by the US Government in laser research. His assignment: To increase the efficiency of lasers so that they could do something more impressive than produce holograms, mend leaky retinal blood vessels, and punch pinholes in steel blocks. Dr. Hill earned his keep, thus advancing laser technology a giant step closer to Star Wars, and then retired from government service to design. . . a loudspeaker?!!!?

How could laser research qualify someone to design a loudspeaker? The connection is really much more direct than it seems. Twenty-odd years ago, Dr. Hill envisaged a loudspeaker that would use a field of ionized air as the transduction element, but didn't feel enough was known about plasmas (footnote 1) to perfect such a device. At about the same time, a firm called the Dukane Company started producing such a device anyway: The "Ionovac" tweeter. It was not a huge commercial success, partly because of its (for those days) outrageous price and partly because add-on tweeters have never been big sellers. (The Ionovac was subsequently made by ElectroVoice until phased out in 1963.) Nonetheless, the Ionovac is still considered by the knowing to be the best supertweeter ever made, and there are few audiophiles who would sniff at its 2–40kHz (±2dB) response.

While developing the high-efficiency laser, Dr. Hill found it was necessary to control the shape of the plasma of ionized gas that does the lasing. And it occurred to him that shaping might be the key to a high-efficiency, wide-range "Ionovac."

His first efforts, using a relatively low-temperature plasma (and an absolutely Mickey Mouse mockup), were disappointing. It produced sound, over a respectable part of the audio spectrum, but at ridiculously low levels of efficiency. Using higher ionizing voltage, and a mixture of air and helium as the plasma medium, he was able to sustain a much larger plasma field (thus significantly extending the low-end range) and to yield practical efficiency figures. Then it was necessary to do additional trimming of the system to produce the flattest possible frequency response across the board.


All Photos Courtesy John Mayberry

In the final production version, flat response is maintained (with 1dB) down to around 700Hz. The upper limit is claimed to produce "significant acoustical power" out to beyond 100kHz. It was deemed impractical to try and carry the low end because of cost and power-supply considerations. Even in the production version, the required driving amplifiers (built into the system and all tubed) are rated at 500Wpc.

The range below 700Hz is handled by conventional cone drivers: a 5" midrange and a 12" woofer, which must be driven by their own (choice optional) amplifier.

The speakers connect to the main system preamplifier via a 30' cable and an "electronic interface"—a small box housing the system's electronic crossover circuitry, balancing controls, and a series of LEDs that display the system's output level at any given instant. The interface unit is located at the main preamp end of the interconnecting cable.


Beside the plasma driving amplifier and the transduction device, each speaker enclosure also houses a large bottle of compressed helium gas (footnote 2), which is fed on demand to the plasma field when the speaker is operating. (When the system is off, the helium flow is automatically turned off.) The bottles must be recharged after each 300 hours or so of operation—representing s little under 6 months of 2-hours-a-day listening sessions. Refills cost around $30 per bottle, which translates into an operating cost of 20¢ per hour for helium alone.

For people living within convenient delivery distance of a major city, there should be no trouble locating a helium supplier. (You'll find them in the Yellow Pages, under "Gas—Industrial and Medical—Cylinder and Bulk," or under "Welding Supplies and Materials.") For those people who live 'way out in the boonies, recharging may involve shipping the empty bottles to some distant supplier and waiting, perhaps for weeks, for their return. (Anyone who can afford a pair of the Plasmatronics should certainly also be able to afford a second set of gas bottles to be put into use when the other set is away being recharged.)

Each speaker weights about 300 lbs with its fully charged bottles. And when both amplifiers have been running for an hour or so, their combined heat dissipation dumps about 3500 BTUs (just over 1kW) into the room—dandy on those chilly winter evenings but a dubious blessing on a hot August afternoon.


With all the design complexity, the question of reliability must inevitably come up. As of now, the speakers haven't been around long enough to establish ay sort of reliability record, although their ability to withstand accidental overloads and foolhardy listening levels has already been demonstrated. They seem to be very rugged, but whether or not production samples will be inadvertently sabotaged by a parts vendor remains to be seen.

Those of us who have read alarming things about the toxic effects of ozone may wonder how much of a problem it is with this system. Well, the Plasmatronics do generate ozone, but in such small quantities that after three hours of continuous operation, it could barely be smelled at a distance of 12" from either speaker. This concentration of ozone is so far below the toxicity (or of potential damage to rubber and plastics) that to worry about it may be symptomatic of some degree of neurosis.

There is provision for biamplifying the two lower-range cones, but this is one of those rare instances where biamping is not recommended. The built-in crossover has phase-correction circuitry; electronic crossovers do not. As a result, biamping the Plasmatronics speakers introduces audible frequency-response irregularities (which are absent when their own crossovers are used), neatly shooting down the system's remarkable blending of drivers.

We auditioned two versions of the Type 1 speaker over a 3-month period. The first was early production, and while that part of the audio range covered by the plasma driver was impressive (more details subsequently), we were unhappy with the low end. The cones blended superbly with the upper range, but the bass was somewhat loose, floppy, and ill-defined. We were inclined to blame that on the driving amplifier, which was one we had never been enamored of: the Audio Research D-100.

Subsequently, Dr. Hill made changes in the cone portions of the system and also found what he felt to be a better drive amplifier for them (the Threshold 4000A), and that was the version of the system we auditioned for this report.

So, how does the current version sound? Quite simply, mind-boggling! One's first reaction is that there is just no transducer there at all. You seem to hear through the system to the program source. Stereo imaging and depth are as well reproduced as form any system we have heard, and the most immediate response to all this is that the system sounds incredibly alive.

Footnote 1: To a physicist, a plasma is a volume of ionized gas. (An ion is an atom having more than or fewer than its usual complement of electrons.) The gas within a plasma has an extremely low density, relative to the gas surrounding it, Thus, when cool gas is heated to the plasma state, it expands in volume and imparts a pressure wave to the surrounding, cooler gas. Using an audio signal to vary the volume of the plasma produces the alternating compressions and rarefactions of a soundwave.

Footnote 2: Helium is inert, odorless, and completely harmless. Deep-sea explorers have breathed a 50/50 mixture of oxygen and helium for days at a time without any effects other than a comical raising of the voice pitches that makes grown men sound like Donald Duck. (Excluding nitrogen from the "air" prevents a nasty diving disorder called "the bends," which results from the formation of nitrogen bubbles in the blood stream when a diver returning to the surface undergoes rapid decompression.) The raising of voice pitches is due to gaseous helium's very low density, which provides less acoustic loading the vocal cords than does normal air, causing them to vibrate more rapidly.

Plasmatronics, Inc.
Albuquerque, NM 87106 (1979)
Company no longer in existence (2014)

c1ferrari's picture


remlab's picture

A plasma tweeter crossed over at and allegedly flat down to 700hz? Is that a typo? The modern Lansche plasma is crossed over at almost 3 times as high.
Reread the review. It's obviously not a typo. Wow!

bpw's picture

I heard the Hill Type 1 at a couple of shops back in the 70s.

At WCES '92 in the old Sahara Bi-Level a pair of prototype full range (!) cold air plasma speakers were demonstrated by Tolteque AHL of France, but the company went out of business not long afterward. Each speaker was 9' tall by 5' wide.

remlab's picture

I already stated that it wasn't a typo.
If it took 500 watts to get a plasma tweeter down to 700hz, I can't imagine the power it took to go "full range". There must be something on the internet mentioning this speaker. All I can find so far is this..
J.M. Willigens on the Tolteque: Their manufacturer, AHL, a subsidiary of a steel mill in Haut Languedoc (south of France) went out of business around 1995. Their product line included three different Tolt'que models, differing only in height and called "americain", europeen and japonais to reflect the differing ceiling heights required to accommodate them. The Tolt'ques were originally meant to use the "cold plasma" ionization technology, which proved unpracticable, but a lot of the research work, particularly concerning transformers and isolation, was used for an ESL development.

bpw's picture

I wasn't disagreeing with you, merely reiterating.

Somewhere I may still have the brochure on the plasma speaker. They were using a pair of big McIntosh amps, I think 750 watts, which were definitely breaking a sweat (the front panel VU meters were clearly getting way up there) just playing light classical music at modest volume. The people from the company, who spoke almost no English, said something about not having the necessary voltage out of the wall (they were expecting 220V?) to enable the speakers to play louder. They estimated a price of $80k for a pair, assuming they would ever be produced.

You are unlikely to find anything more on the web about the company and products because they are long forgotten.

remlab's picture

Was it horn loaded? I would imagine it would have to be.

bpw's picture

No, it wasn't. The ionization chamber (active driven area of the speaker) was about 4 inches square. I really don't remember much. After all, that was over 22 years ago.

audiolab's picture

Shame... that the world is running out of helium

yaka24's picture

more expensive electronics than in the picture (emotiva) were used it would sound better

remlab's picture

..the high value leader right now. Amazing stuff for the money. Stereophile definitely needs to review some of the electronics in their lineup.

corrective_unconscious's picture

Typed by hand from the manuscript / magazine issue or from a Tandy computer file?

"(An ion is an atom having more than or fewer than its usual complement of electronics.)"

If that is the original text then there should be a "[sic]" put in.

If it's a transcription error than it should be fixed. Same for the word "od" which you can find in the review proper. Maybe others - I've only scanned the first page.

We don't want W.D. going on a rant about how "Stereophile" hates electrons, now do we?

John Atkinson's picture
corrective_unco... wrote:

Typed by hand from the manuscript / magazine issue or from a Tandy computer file?

Ran a scan from the original magazine through a text recognition app, then cleaned it up by hand.

corrective_unco... wrote:

If it's a transcription error [then] it should be fixed. Same for the word "od" which you can find in the review proper.

Both fixed. Thanks for the proof reading.

John Atkinson
Editor, Stereophile

corrective_unconscious's picture


You're messing with my mind again.

remlab's picture

Anality to the point of banality. Ugh!

corrective_unconscious's picture

You should learn what an ellipsis is.

If you merely stutter then I apologize, naturally.

remlab's picture

Thiss iz geting funn!

hexguitar's picture

I was 25 years old in 1979 when I stumbled upon Audiovision in Dallas.

This was my first glimpse of true high end audio.

Audiovision had two large rooms.

The largest contained lower to mid-priced high end gear. There were speakers from DCM (Time Window), Magnapan (MG-I, MG-IIA), Mordaunt Short, etc. Electronics were from NAD and Harmon-Kardon. Sources were from NAD, Eumig, and Denon.

The second room, which was about 20 by 35 by 12 contained the high priced gear. This room had Threshold, JVC Pro (imported directly from Japan), and Beveridge electronics. The Beveridge pre-amp in the main system had two chassis. One chassis had the power supply. The other contained all of the rest of the pre-amps guts.

Speakers in this room included Magnepan Tympanis and Beveridge hybrid electrostats.

Here is where I saw and heard the Hills.

My initial reaction was similar to virtually everyone I subsequently observed hearing (and seeing) Hills for the first time. I was startled.

When first fired up (sorry, I couldn't resist the pun), the plasma emits a small "pop" as it forms. It also visually produces a blue flame between the nozzles that seems to dance in the air.

Then the music started and I was again startled by the clearest, most life-like reproduction of recorded music I'd ever heard. The recording being demoed was a solo A Capella contra-basso male voice.

The image produced could have fooled me into believing the invisible man was singing in the room.

I ended up talking the owner into giving me a job. We sold three pairs of Hills in the 10 months I worked there. In late 1979, the owner announced that he was bleeding money and had to close.

The Hills did have maintenance issues. Guy Oliviera, who was the store manager, did tech work on the store's Hills. They broke down frequently.

But when they functioned, they played better than anything I've ever heard.

Steven Kastner

psteet's picture

When the store went under, Todd, the owner, came back to Austin and stayed with me while he looked for another place. He ended up trading me the speakers for rent and I owned them for another twenty years. Other than the expense and inconvenience of the helium, they were a joy to have and listen to. To this day I have never heard speakers with better high end. I finally sold the tweeters to a man in Canada as he did not want the whole speaker and offered and remarkable amount of money for them. I am happy to have been the owner of one of the most unusual and downright remarkable pieces of audio gear ever produced.

Plasmatony's picture

I worked for Alan Hill all those years ago. I have a pair of plasma drivers and have revived them with new electronics. It is such a joy to have them back in operation. Alan is still alive and kicking and rumor has it that he has plans...

remlab's picture

Pretty freakin crazy! Horrid music on the video. Have your own plasma speaker for $100.00!

Bob Henry's picture

I likewise attended WCES '92 and stumbled upon the Tolteque plasma loudspeakers.

So large they nearly occupied the entire room.

And so wide (each unit 5 feet) that stereo imaging was imperceptible.

As for the Hill Plasmatronics, I first heard them in Los Angeles at Ken Mavrick's Audio One store.

The violet-colored flickering plasma was something to behold. And the sound reproduction was freakishly real given the right source material (e.g., human voice, acoustic instruments played at moderate levels).

Made me covet them over my Harold Beveridge loudspeakers, whose mid-range naturalness and "3-D" imaging was first-rate.

As for other cutting edge loudspeaker designs, I never auditioned John Iverson's Electro Research "force field" loudspeaker. (One WCES display anecdote I heard was that the ozone it produced made listeners nauseous and/or gave them a headache.)