VPI Classic Direct Drive Signature turntable The RIAA Curve

Sidebar 1: The RIAA Curve

From the perspective of today's complex, high-tech world, a turntable seems to be a relatively simple, almost primitive device that uses 19th-century technology to make a platter rotate on a bearing at a specific speed.

From afar, a spinning platter is a spinning platter, and if a tonearm and cartridge can travel without a hiccup from lead-in to lead-out groove, well, mission accomplished. But if it's that simple, why do all turntables sound different from one another? Can we all agree that they do? That we don't need to "prove" this with double-blind A/B/X testing? Good. Then I'll proceed.

Although you can get sound from an LP by rotating it on a fingertip and holding a stiff bristle in the groove, the process of accurately extracting musical information from a record groove while suppressing extraneous noise has proven extremely complex. In fact, as some very talented and very smart people continue to apply to this process their knowledge, skills, and ideas, the goalposts keep moving. What was thought 20 years ago to be the maximum amount of information that could be extracted has been exceeded again and again. What could be inscribed in a record groove 50 years ago has taken the 50 years since to be accurately and fully retrieved. Even today, there's considerable doubt that we've heard it all.

The activity continues at both ends of the process, as mastering and pressing facilities are upgraded in the quest for more accurate groove inscription and greater retrieval of information, even as records produced half a century ago continue to yield significant new details as playback technology improves. The chances are good that what's locked in those old record grooves surpasses what information remains on the deteriorating master tapes from which they were made.

Today, the fun for analog devotees is to upgrade and hear their favorite records anew. Part of that fun is to hear, for instance, previously obscured "background singers" suddenly become recognizable—"Oh, that's Linda Ronstadt!" "I didn't know that was James Taylor back there!"

Vinyl Playback: A Time Travel Technology: The information that follows is a synthesis of Keith Howard's "Cut and Thrust: RIAA LP Equalization," originally published in the March 2009 issue of Stereophile; and an excerpt from Gary A. Galo's "The Columbia LP Equalization Curve," originally published in the Spring 2009 issue, Vol.40 No.1, of the ARSC Journal, the publication of the Association for Recorded Sound Collections.

We all know that playing an LP at the wrong speed produces incorrect pitches. We also know that, in addition to shifting pitch, the sound gets brighter as the speed increases, and duller as it decreases. So it would seem that correct speed is essential to both correct pitch and flat frequency response.

However, vinyl playback is far more complex. The RIAA curve, often called "equalization," is made while cutting the lacquer from which an LP is to be pressed: the bass frequencies are attenuated and the treble frequencies are boosted, their full amplitudes to be restored at playback. It also involves a combination of constant-velocity and constant-amplitude record and playback characteristics. I broach the subject here because it's germane to my review of VPI Industries' Classic Direct turntable.

Magnetic phono cartridges, whether moving-magnet or moving-coil, and lathe cutter heads, are velocity-, not amplitude-sensitive transducers. The cutting head produces a velocity proportional to the input voltage, not a displacement proportional to the input voltage. The cartridge produces an output voltage proportional to the velocity, not the displacement, so its frequency response will be linear, or flat, only when it's fed a constant-velocity signal.

Here, velocity refers to the physical distance the stylus of the cutter or cartridge moves perpendicular to the groove in a given period of time. Records can be cut with constant velocity or with constant amplitude characteristics. Constant-velocity cutting would result in flat cartridge response, so equalization would not be needed at playback, but it's not practical. A theoretical constant-velocity cut would result in large groove excursions at low frequencies and ultra-small (ie, low-level) ones at higher frequencies. That is because a stylus tracing, for example, a 500 or 5000Hz signal moves a greater distance in a given period of time than it does when tracing a 50Hz signal, if both are of the same amplitude (fig.1). In order to keep the velocity constant at all frequencies over time, the amplitude must be halved as the relative frequency doubles.


Fig.1 Constant velocity cutting results in large groove excursions at low frequencies and ultrasmall excursions at higher frequencies (graph provided by Gary A. Galo).

Records can also be cut with constant amplitude. That is, regardless of frequency, the amplitude (level) remains constant. One benefit of this is that, as the frequency falls, the amplitude doesn't increase, so neither do the groove excursions, which allows much more music to fit on a record.

Because the cutter head, too, is a velocity-sensitive transducer, maintaining constant amplitude, instead of it halving as the frequency doubles (as in a constant-velocity cut), it requires a 6dB/octave rise in the signal fed to the cutter head, which would produce a far more linear line than the wavy upward line called the RIAA "pre-emphasis" recording curve, which you're probably familiar with (fig.2, taken from the Keith Howard article). Theoretically, your phono preamplifier produces an inverse of that 6dB/octave rise, to output a flat response. The reality is far more complex.


Fig.2 RIAA preemphasis (record) curve (blue), with the +6dB/octave equalization required for a true constant-amplitude cut (red) (graph by Keith Howard).

If constant amplitude were really maintained from low to high frequencies, the playback bass boost required below 50Hz would unacceptably amplify low-level noise along with the signal. And if constant amplitude were maintained into the very high frequencies, the wave radii would become so "spikey" that no playback stylus could accurately trace them.

The vinyl records we know and love are cut using both constant amplitude and constant velocity. The choices made at the beginning of the LP era, and later modified to produce the RIAA curve, were made to take into account noise and other factors that result from the slow playing speed of 331?3rpm.

Despite what's already been discussed, below 50.5Hz, cutting is actually constant velocity—which results in flat response without equalization, but also somewhat larger groove excursions. The tradeoff was made to avoid noise problems resulting from having to boost the very low bass by 6dB/octave. If you look at the RIAA recording curve, you will see it flatten below 50.5Hz, which is why it is called the low-bass shelf.

Between 50.5 and 500.5Hz (the "bass turnover" point), cutting is constant amplitude. Between 500.5 and 2122Hz (the "treble transition"), cutting reverts to constant velocity; above 2122Hz, it is again constant amplitude. The rise in the curve above 2122Hz, though called "treble pre-emphasis," does not really depict increasing amplitude, but an increase in recorded velocity. Boosting the amplitude would make tracing the groove in playback more difficult.

The playback cartridge produces flat response for the constant-velocity portion of the curve, and for the constant-amplitude portion its output rises at 6dB/octave, which must be compensated for by the inverse RIAA curve built into phono preamplifiers. However according to Gary Galo's article, the RIAA "recording characteristic" is a graph of recorded velocity, not recorded amplitude. It becomes a graph of recorded amplitude when the record is played with a velocity-sensitive magnetic pickup. The complementary playback equalization results in flat frequency response.

My point is that the reasons why speed accuracy is critical in terms of both actual speed and microspeed consistency go far beyond perceived pitch. (Thanks to Gary A. Galo, Audio Engineer Emeritus, The Crane School of Music, SUNY Potsdam, for helping me through the technical concepts and for providing the graph of amplitude vs time.)—Michael Fremer

VPI Industries, Inc.
77 Cliffwood Ave. #3B
Cliffwood, NJ 07721
(732) 583-6895

Phil Sommers's picture

A mensch is Yiddish for a "person of honor and integrity." Few of his tens of thousands of customers would dispute the word being used to describe Harry Weisfeld.

Michael, you should have moved this statement to your final paragraph: "I'd say the Classic Direct with its JMW Memorial 3D-printed 12" tonearm comes as close to the Caliburn's sound as has any turntable, and for less than one-fifth the price..."

Feel free to append a qualification if you have a problem with my editing. But I bet you have no problem with my description of Harry.

Doctor Fine's picture

Well gee if Mikey liked the VPI Direct Drive turntable I wonder if he will ever admit he likes the bargain of the century Technics SL1210M5G at less than a tenth the price?

I see the Technics is still listed on B&H's site through no help from the "High End" reviewers who have given it a cold shoulder for years. I am surprised you guys haven't killed it yet. Makes so many "High End" tables look silly.

Try one with oil damping upgrade by KAB and get Art Dudley to hook you up with a Denon DL-103 moving coil cart and matching transformer. Art knows the ones I am thinking about.

Once, just once I would like to see the egg on your faces when you realize how much sound such a combo will produce for not a lot of dough.

High End indeed.

DaveThreshold's picture

I have that exact same table Doctor! Almost all KAB mods with three different cartridges: AT OC9-III, BP EVO-3, and a Grado Ref. Sonata.
(Pardon my happy-rant)
A few months ago, I bought a Threshold Fet-10e PC dedicated phono preamp, and just two weeks ago, a threshold Fet-10e High Level. There are very few companies left with GOLD PLATED circuit boards. (I also have a Spectral DMC-6 Series II with one.) I also have a Rothwell MCL Transformer, which I am working with, and with the OC9-III it does away with ALL the pesky phono noise, but I have to check a few things before I implement it.
Thank you or the review Michael! I bought one of your DVD’s, and learned a TON.

otaku's picture


Did you catch Harry at Stereo Exchange unloading and loading LPs on the Direct Drive while it was still spinning?

DaveThreshold's picture

Michael, have you ever used a dual head stethoscope, for a quick TT noise listen? I bought one, and it is FANTASTIC. The membrane side is about 15 times more sensitive than the normal, cone side.
From it I have experienced the following: Older, 70’s era belt drive tables with the tiny diameter pulley's and the higher speed motors, (Pioneer, etc.) Sound like the inside of a WW2 submarine. A couple of older rim drives, sound like Sherman TANKS. My Sumiko Pro-Ject RM-9 (belt) was audible.

Now for the quiet ones:
The third quietest was my Technics M5G stock. Tied for first are my modified M5G with EXTERNAL transformer, I can no longer hear ANYTHING, and the real shocker: A Vintage, Sony TTS-3000 BELT drive! The way they engineered the motor was genius: It is literally suspended by small and very compliant rubber bands. With the Sony, after a clean/lube, I disconnected the belt, spun it as fast as I could, and checked it again. Nothing! DEAD quiet.
I realize that sound is more important than specs, but I think it BEHOOVES V.P.I. to include a rumble spec. – I bet it’s a low rumble record breaker.

Doctor Fine's picture

Don't get me wrong I spend a ton of money on things that really matter like set up, acoustic treatments, wiring, prime quality components with "life" in them, etc. Speakers, amps and sources all have to have a palpable sense of real quality or all is lost later in the playback chain. You can't get back what isn't there in the first place.

But it makes me crazy to see folks spend big money on things with tiny acoustic returns on investment. Belt drive turntables in general will sound terrible using a low compliance cartridge as the belt will start wobbling as it pulls the cart through tough passages.

A direct drive table will just sail on through the mess.

So if a direct drive is well made otherwise AND it has speed stability using vintage cartridges---what's not to like?

Spending big bucks on a platter so big it is ridiculous and looks like a "wedding cake." I mean, c'mon are you kidding?

stereophilereader's picture

the new generation of direct drives are light years ahead of the sl1200, which was a pale shadow of the sp10.
i've heard the vpi and it is nothing like an sl1200.

otaku's picture

Just noticed Mikey's comments about not stopping a direct-drive turntable by hand. Seems counter-intuitive to me, but I guess that is why Harry was not stopping and starting the turntable at the show.

morricab's picture

I think Mikey you have forgotten that the great Japanese companies effectively beat the "cogging" issue by the late 70s. The Kenwood/Trio L-07, Yamaha GT2000 and others all sported their own proprietary cog free drive systems. The Kenwood and Yamaha both had coreless, slotless motors with no iron in the stators or rotors. Also, they applied much more sophisiticated control systems that effectively eliminated "hunting" of early quartz locked PLL systems. Finally, they employed high mass metal platters (7Kg for the Kenwood and 6kg for the Yamaha) and heavy solid non-suspended plinths (The Kenwood weighs 35Kg and the Yamaha 30kg). The only problem with the Kenwood was RFI leakage, which is easily solved by putting a layer of mu metal on the bottom of the platter.

So, while I admire what VPI has done, they are really retreading the same ground that was perfected by the Japanese just as the "end" of vinyl was near due to the introduction of cd. It is important to note though that the Japanese super tables of that day would be VERY expensive today as well (probably close to the $30K of the VPI).

Vinyl Love's picture

The interesting fact here is that Mr. Fremer uses the Continuum Caliburn as his yardstick judge all turntables. If it sounds close to the Caliburn, it's good. If not it isn't.

soundofvoid's picture

Direct drive was getting there at the end of the '80s.
There were BIG direct drive tables that were silent,non cogging and musical.
It's just that when CD came, the small firms that kept the analog scene alive didn't have the resources and knowledge to make a superb DD table...and when they did it was ultra expensive.
It's crucial NOT to load the motor with a flimsy platter.
You need mass and inertia acting as a smoothing agent to the power of the motor.
They -the japanese i mean- had got it at the end AND gradually got away from the flimsy wooden chassis ...but then the CD hurricane came and the rest is history...

ConcernedDJagainstFalseProductClaims's picture

I am sorry to report to our shrinking community that the claims that are made by this firm are completely without merit. To claim that spending $30,000.00 dollars on this unit as designed are in any way warranted is complete bullshit and unwarranted as proven by the reviewers own testing. Id like to know particularly WHAT market is it that this company is working to win over. Is it the Audiophile market? or is it the DJ market? As an Audiophile table it is a complete failure. Adversely speaking, as a DJ product it is ALSO a complete failure. Lets begin first in the audiophile market; This unit CANNOT be compared to an SME Turntable. It is an utter failure with wow and flutter that are so high and noisy one wonders what it is that one gains from such an expensive price tag. NO this unit can not be considered a fine SME horsehair belt driven unit with a separate power supply. DONE, FINI. and to think they market this unit with a $2500.00 dollar cartridge made by Ortofon - of all manufacturers is a joke to out right hilarious. Before an Audiophile spends his hard earned money on this unit I recommend looking into a comparable priced SME Unit with a Ruby Dynavector moving coil cartridge with both a separate outboard power supply and a seperate moving coil cartridge preamp. and then do a side by side comparison. Now as for a comparison to other DJ tables this unit is a failure hands down compared to a Technics SL-1210 M5G either purchased stock or mod enabled with a number of options. I have what I believe is the finest DJ table there is that I have purchased and then moded with a number of options. It is an SL-1100 AC with an SME 3001 tone arm with a tone arm end Mod that allows me to change cartridges from a Stanton 680-EL or 890-EL together with a Dynavector SUP-200 Step-up Transformer which is a moderately priced moving coil stepup transformer that I choice due to my choice of using 2 Ruby Dynavector MC carts. I must admit I DO NOT ue these carts for DJ use as it is a fools dream to even place yournands on a record while the Ruby D is in contact with the record on the platter. You will snap the shank right off the cartridge if you attempt such a dumb move as to use this cart in a dj setting. I use my Dynavectors as cartridges for audiophile use and/or transferring to a digital medium - understood! For DJ use I use a properly mounted 680-EL cart as my dj cartridge. Another Mod I have installed is an outboard power supply for the 1100 AC which reduces the wow & Flutter to under .010 to .07. This is far, far under .25 to.35 W&F found on both standard Technics and the Vintages own measurements. As you may be aware of the Technics SL-1100 and 1100 AC are NO Quartz tables. Quartz control is a wow and Flutter BOMB that causes all the noise in these units. These units are Servo Controlled motors that if have been properly cared for are very silent. These turntables are made for people that are MASTERS of Mixing records that are not based or created by computer locked beats but are old school classics filled with human error. It takes years to work with your music learning all the nuances of each record and mastering how each record plays. Making being a DJ the TRUE ART that it is. I can't complain further - 30 G's for a turntable is ridiculous as it can be.

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